Early treatment is vital to save the patient from having another stroke and severe, life-threatening impairments. Once the stroke is brought under control, the survivor may need to undergo certain medication or surgical protocol to prevent another stroke.
Usually, doctors use several medications to decrease the likelihood of another stroke, depending on the location, cause and severity of the stroke. If the rupture caused by stroke is severe and produces a great amount of bleeding and pressure, further surgical measures can be taken to repair the ruptured blood vessel and minimize the reoccurrence. Additionally, the stroke survivor is advised to avoid hypertension and control blood pressure, cholesterol and lipid levels through maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
There are different kinds of medications that doctors may prescribe to a stroke victim to minimize recurrent stroke, including tPA (tissue plasminogen activator), blood thinners and drugs that work on lowering high blood pressure and cholesterol.
Antiplatelet medicines such as Aspirin can reduce the risk of blood clotting after a stroke and hence can be quite helpful in preventing another stroke. Anticoagulant medicines like heparin or warfarin can also be given to prevent blood clots formation in the future. Meditation for hypertension may also be prescribed alongside Antiplatelet pills.
In most cases, surgery is relatively rare and less helpful in treating and preventing a stroke. If stroke is the result of Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM), surgery may be required to relieve the pressure caused by the bleeding and brain swelling. In certain cases, a surgery called Carotid Angioplasty is recommended. The procedure involves inserting and inflating a tiny balloon to open a clogged artery and placing a small wire tube (stent) into the artery to decrease the chance of it narrowing again.
When patients have a serious blockage in the arteries in the neck (that help in blood supply to the brain), a surgery called Carotid Endarterectomy may be required to prevent a stroke or a Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIAs). Since blood flow to the brain may decrease temporarily in some TIA patients, Bypass surgery may also be advised.
Minimizing stroke risk factors is a lifelong effort. The stroke victim is advised to stick to a healthy lifestyle through limiting smoking and drinking, eating a healthy diet and exercising (to control high blood pressure and cholesterol).
Losing weight to normal levels and exercising for at least 150 minutes once in a week is recommended to decrease the risk of having a stroke. Having at least 7-hour for sound sleep is also necessary.
Having a well-balanced diet, with plenty of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and lean meat is appreciated. Junk foods and foods with saturated and trans fats are asked to be avoided while salt (sodium) intake are to be reduced to regulate the blood pressure.