AJAX progress indicator
  • a

  • Acquisitional Occupation
    Skills targeted towards the restoration of impaired skills.
  • Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
    People's daily self care activities.
  • Adaptive Occupation
    Skills focused on adapting to new environment.
  • Agnosia
    An individual's inability to process sensory information.
  • Amantadine
    An antiviral and antiparkinsonian drug.
  • Aneurysm
    A ballooning and the weakened area in an artery.
  • Anosodiaphoria
    A condition in which a specially-abled person seems indifferent to the existence of his handicap.
  • Anosognosia
    Also known as 'lack of insight'; an individual's inability to understand and perceive his or her illness.
  • Antidepressants
    Drugs, majorly used for the treatment of depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and neuropathic pain.
  • Antihypertensives
    A class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension.
  • Aphasia
    A language disorder that affects the production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write.
  • Paresthesia
    A burning or prickling sensation that is majorly felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet.
  • Apraxia
    A disorder that deals with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked.
  • Neuroplasticity
    The brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to environmental stimuli.
  • Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
    An abnormal connection between arteries and veins.
  • Atherosclerosis
    A condition characterized by the narrowing of an artery narrows due to the build-up of plaque.
  • b

  • Basal Ganglia
    A set of interconnected nuclei in the forebrain.
  • Bradykinesia
    A medical term for the slowness of movement.
  • Brain cortex
    The largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function like thought and action.
  • c

  • Cardiovascular Health
    The wellbeing of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Carotid Ultrasound
    An ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique to reveal structural details of the carotid arteries.
  • Central Nervous System
    The part of the nervous system which consists of the brain and spinal cord which coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
  • Cholesterol
    A waxy, fat-like substance that naturally occurs in all parts of the body.
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
    A therapeutic method that primarily deals with anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders and anger problems.
  • Cognitive Deficits
    Impairments in an individual's mental processes.
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation
    A program to help cognitively impaired individuals to compensate for cognitive deficits.
  • Compensatory Techniques
    Behavioral strategies designed to bypass persistent impairment in attention, memory, executive-function, and other cognitive skills.
  • Cueing techniques
    Visual or verbal techniques that use hand signals or minimal words to inform an individual.
  • d

  • Dopamine
    An endogenous chemical that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It also helps regulate body's movement and emotional responses.
  • Dysarthria
    A medical term used to describe unclear articulation of speech that is otherwise linguistically normal.
  • Dyskinesia
    A set of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements.
  • Dysphagia
    A symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
  • e

  • Electrocardiogram
    Commonly known as ECG, Electrocardiogram records the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time.
  • Embolic Stroke
    Ischemic strokes that are caused by a blockage of blood supply to part of the brain (caused by embolus).
  • Esophageal Motility Disorders
    Any medical disorder causing difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation of food and a spasm-type pain.
  • Executive Functions
    A set of mental skills that help an individual look after different aspects of a task.
  • Expiratory Phase
    The portion of the respiratory cycle that involves exhalation, or moving air out of the lungs.
  • f

  • FAST
    A mnemonic to help detect and enhance responsiveness to stroke victim needs. It stands for Facial drooping, Arm weakness, Speech difficulties and Time to call emergency services.
  • Finger Flexor
    Flexor muscles of the forearm that flexes the fingers.
  • Finger Isolation
    The ability to move each finger one at a time.
  • g

  • Gag Reflex
    A reflex contraction of the back of the throat. Also known as the pharyngeal reflex, it is commonly evoked by touching the uvula, the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils and the back of the throat.
  • Gait Imbalance
    Problem with gait, balance, and coordination.
  • Goose-stepping
    A special marching that is characterized by swing legs in unison off the ground while keeping each leg straight and unbent.
  • h

  • Hemispatial Neglect
    The brain's inability to be aware of items to one side of space.
  • Homonymous Hemianopia
    A visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline.
  • Hypersensitivity
    A condition in which the immune system reacts abnormally to a foreign substance.
  • i

  • Idiopathic
    Relating to any disease which arises spontaneously or for which the cause is unknown.
  • Inspiratory Phase
    The portion of the respiratory cycle that involves inhaling air in the lungs.
  • Intrinsic Muscles Strengthening
    An attempt to achieve functional grasp and release.
  • l

  • Left Hemisphere
    The left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It looks after tasks dealing with logic.
  • Leisure Skill Development
    Development of recreation skills in individuals with learning disabilities.
  • Levodopa
    One of the main drugs used to treat Parkinson's symptoms at all stages of the condition.  It attempts to replace the dopamine that is lost in Parkinson's.
  • Limbic System
    A set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus.
  • LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2)
    An enzyme often associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease.
  • m

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    An imaging technique, used to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the human body.
  • Motivational Interviewing (MI)
    A counseling approach that harness group processes for evoking and supporting positive change.
  • Motor Imagery (MI)
    A mental process by which an individual rehearses or simulates a given action.
  • n

  • Nerve Pathways
    A pathway that connects relatively distant areas of the brain is a bundle of neurons, known collectively as White Matter.
  • Neurologist
    A doctor who specializes in neurology.
  • Neuromuscular Deficits
    A collection of diseases that impair the functioning of the muscles.
  • Neuropsychologists
    The study of the structure and function of the brain, specific to psychological processes and behaviors.
  • Neurotransmitters
    Endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
  • Norepinephrine
    An organic chemical that functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
  • o

  • Occipital Cortex
    The visual processing center of the human brain.
  • Occipital Lobe
    The visual processing center of the human brain.
  • Occupations
    Skills needed for performing self-directed activities.
  • Olfactory Deficit
    A cognitive impairment that results in a disordered sense of smell.
  • Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
    Difficulty initiating a swallow.
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
    A decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg. It is a form of low blood pressure that happens when an individual stands up from sitting or lying down.
  • Overactive Reflexes
    Sudden, involuntary bending or straightening of a limb, or jerking of muscle groups such as in the trunk, bladder, or rectum.
  • p

  • Pain Threshold
    The upper limit of tolerance to pain.
  • Pain Tolerance
    The maximum level of pain that an individual is able to tolerate.
  • Paralysis
    A loss of muscle function in part of the human body, most often caused by damage to the nervous system.
  • Pathophysiology
    The disordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
    An imaging test that helps reveal how an individual's tissues and organs are functioning.
  • Proprioception
    The sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body.
  • Psychotherapy
    A practice to help people with a broad variety of mental illnesses and emotional difficulties. It can take shape of cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, psychodynamic therapy, or a combination of these.
  • q

  • Quadrantanopia
    A defect in the visual field that affects a quarter of the field of vision.
  • r

  • Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder
    The acting out of dreams that are vivid, intense, and violent.
  • Rapid Involuntary Eye Movement
    A condition that causes involuntary, rapid movement of one or both eyes.
  • Right Hemisphere
    The right side of the brain is responsible for controlling the left side of the body. It performs tasks that have to do with creativity and the arts.
  • s

  • Seizures
    A sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain, which usually affects how a person appears or acts for a short time.
  • Plaque
    When the body produces too much cholesterol, combines with other substances in the blood and stick to the walls of the arteries. This is called plaque.
  • Sensory Cueing
    A signal that can be extracted from the sensory input.
  • Sensory Processing
    The process that organizes sensation from one's own body and the environment.
  • Sialorrhea
    A medical term used for the excessive production of saliva.
  • Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Scan
    A nuclear imaging test that reveals how blood flows to tissues and organs in the human body.
  • Syncope
    A sudden drop in heart rate and blood pressure leading to fainting.
  • t

  • The Motor Cortex
    The region of the human brain involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
  • Thrombotic Stroke
    A kind of stroke which occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one of the arteries that are responsible for blood supply to the brain.
  • u

  • Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)
    A scale that measures the longitudinal course of Parkinson's disease.
  • v

  • Vertigo
    A sense of rotation, rocking, or the world spinning, experienced even when an individual is perfectly still.
  • Visual Cueing Techniques
    A signal that can be extracted from the visual input.
  • Visual Neglect
    Also known as Hemispatial Inattention; an attention disorder that prevents the patient from attending to stimuli on one side.
  • Visual Spatial Dysfunction
    A disability to tell where objects are in space.