- Acquisitional OccupationSkills targeted towards the restoration of impaired skills.
- Activities of Daily Living (ADL)People's daily self care activities.
- Adaptive OccupationSkills focused on adapting to new environment.
- AgnosiaAn individual's inability to process sensory information.
- AmantadineAn antiviral and antiparkinsonian drug.
- AneurysmA ballooning and the weakened area in an artery.
- AnosodiaphoriaA condition in which a specially-abled person seems indifferent to the existence of his handicap.
- AnosognosiaAlso known as 'lack of insight'; an individual's inability to understand and perceive his or her illness.
- AntidepressantsDrugs, majorly used for the treatment of depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and neuropathic pain.
- AntihypertensivesA class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension.
- AphasiaA language disorder that affects the production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write.
- ParesthesiaA burning or prickling sensation that is majorly felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet.
- ApraxiaA disorder that deals with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked.
- NeuroplasticityThe brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to environmental stimuli.
- Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)An abnormal connection between arteries and veins.
- AtherosclerosisA condition characterized by the narrowing of an artery narrows due to the build-up of plaque.
- Basal GangliaA set of interconnected nuclei in the forebrain.
- BradykinesiaA medical term for the slowness of movement.
- Brain cortexThe largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function like thought and action.
- Cardiovascular HealthThe wellbeing of the heart and blood vessels.
- Carotid UltrasoundAn ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique to reveal structural details of the carotid arteries.
- Central Nervous SystemThe part of the nervous system which consists of the brain and spinal cord which coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
- CholesterolA waxy, fat-like substance that naturally occurs in all parts of the body.
- Cognitive Behavioral TherapyA therapeutic method that primarily deals with anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders and anger problems.
- Cognitive DeficitsImpairments in an individual's mental processes.
- Cognitive RehabilitationA program to help cognitively impaired individuals to compensate for cognitive deficits.
- Compensatory TechniquesBehavioral strategies designed to bypass persistent impairment in attention, memory, executive-function, and other cognitive skills.
- Cueing techniquesVisual or verbal techniques that use hand signals or minimal words to inform an individual.
- DopamineAn endogenous chemical that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It also helps regulate body's movement and emotional responses.
- DysarthriaA medical term used to describe unclear articulation of speech that is otherwise linguistically normal.
- DyskinesiaA set of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements.
- DysphagiaA symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
- ElectrocardiogramCommonly known as ECG, Electrocardiogram records the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time.
- Embolic StrokeIschemic strokes that are caused by a blockage of blood supply to part of the brain (caused by embolus).
- Esophageal Motility DisordersAny medical disorder causing difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation of food and a spasm-type pain.
- Executive FunctionsA set of mental skills that help an individual look after different aspects of a task.
- Expiratory PhaseThe portion of the respiratory cycle that involves exhalation, or moving air out of the lungs.
- FASTA mnemonic to help detect and enhance responsiveness to stroke victim needs. It stands for Facial drooping, Arm weakness, Speech difficulties and Time to call emergency services.
- Finger FlexorFlexor muscles of the forearm that flexes the fingers.
- Finger IsolationThe ability to move each finger one at a time.
- Gag ReflexA reflex contraction of the back of the throat. Also known as the pharyngeal reflex, it is commonly evoked by touching the uvula, the roof of the mouth, the back of the tongue, the area around the tonsils and the back of the throat.
- Gait ImbalanceProblem with gait, balance, and coordination.
- Goose-steppingA special marching that is characterized by swing legs in unison off the ground while keeping each leg straight and unbent.
- Hemispatial NeglectThe brain's inability to be aware of items to one side of space.
- Homonymous HemianopiaA visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline.
- HypersensitivityA condition in which the immune system reacts abnormally to a foreign substance.
- IdiopathicRelating to any disease which arises spontaneously or for which the cause is unknown.
- Inspiratory PhaseThe portion of the respiratory cycle that involves inhaling air in the lungs.
- Intrinsic Muscles StrengtheningAn attempt to achieve functional grasp and release.
- Left HemisphereThe left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It looks after tasks dealing with logic.
- Leisure Skill DevelopmentDevelopment of recreation skills in individuals with learning disabilities.
- LevodopaOne of the main drugs used to treat Parkinson's symptoms at all stages of the condition. It attempts to replace the dopamine that is lost in Parkinson's.
- Limbic SystemA set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus.
- LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2)An enzyme often associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)An imaging technique, used to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the human body.
- Motivational Interviewing (MI)A counseling approach that harness group processes for evoking and supporting positive change.
- Motor Imagery (MI)A mental process by which an individual rehearses or simulates a given action.
- Nerve PathwaysA pathway that connects relatively distant areas of the brain is a bundle of neurons, known collectively as White Matter.
- NeurologistA doctor who specializes in neurology.
- Neuromuscular DeficitsA collection of diseases that impair the functioning of the muscles.
- NeuropsychologistsThe study of the structure and function of the brain, specific to psychological processes and behaviors.
- NeurotransmittersEndogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
- NorepinephrineAn organic chemical that functions as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
- Occipital CortexThe visual processing center of the human brain.
- Occipital LobeThe visual processing center of the human brain.
- OccupationsSkills needed for performing self-directed activities.
- Olfactory DeficitA cognitive impairment that results in a disordered sense of smell.
- Oropharyngeal DysphagiaDifficulty initiating a swallow.
- Orthostatic HypotensionA decrease in systolic blood pressure of 20 mm Hg. It is a form of low blood pressure that happens when an individual stands up from sitting or lying down.
- Overactive ReflexesSudden, involuntary bending or straightening of a limb, or jerking of muscle groups such as in the trunk, bladder, or rectum.
- Pain ThresholdThe upper limit of tolerance to pain.
- Pain ToleranceThe maximum level of pain that an individual is able to tolerate.
- ParalysisA loss of muscle function in part of the human body, most often caused by damage to the nervous system.
- PathophysiologyThe disordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanAn imaging test that helps reveal how an individual's tissues and organs are functioning.
- ProprioceptionThe sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body.
- PsychotherapyA practice to help people with a broad variety of mental illnesses and emotional difficulties. It can take shape of cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, psychodynamic therapy, or a combination of these.
- QuadrantanopiaA defect in the visual field that affects a quarter of the field of vision.
- Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior DisorderThe acting out of dreams that are vivid, intense, and violent.
- Rapid Involuntary Eye MovementA condition that causes involuntary, rapid movement of one or both eyes.
- Right HemisphereThe right side of the brain is responsible for controlling the left side of the body. It performs tasks that have to do with creativity and the arts.
- SeizuresA sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain, which usually affects how a person appears or acts for a short time.
- PlaqueWhen the body produces too much cholesterol, combines with other substances in the blood and stick to the walls of the arteries. This is called plaque.
- Sensory CueingA signal that can be extracted from the sensory input.
- Sensory ProcessingThe process that organizes sensation from one's own body and the environment.
- SialorrheaA medical term used for the excessive production of saliva.
- Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) ScanA nuclear imaging test that reveals how blood flows to tissues and organs in the human body.
- SyncopeA sudden drop in heart rate and blood pressure leading to fainting.
- The Motor CortexThe region of the human brain involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
- Thrombotic StrokeA kind of stroke which occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one of the arteries that are responsible for blood supply to the brain.
- Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)A scale that measures the longitudinal course of Parkinson's disease.
- VertigoA sense of rotation, rocking, or the world spinning, experienced even when an individual is perfectly still.
- Visual Cueing TechniquesA signal that can be extracted from the visual input.
- Visual NeglectAlso known as Hemispatial Inattention; an attention disorder that prevents the patient from attending to stimuli on one side.
- Visual Spatial DysfunctionA disability to tell where objects are in space.